Length of course: One Academic year (30 weeks).

Course Description:

This course is a study of helminthic infections and their laboratory diagnosis with practice in performing the diagnosis.

 Lectures

1. describe the main morphological features and the methods of                    reproduction and multiplication of helminths of humans: the                     nematodes, cestodes and trematodes.

2. list the common human intestinal nematodes, showing their infective      stage and method and source of infection.

3. sketch the life- cycle of Ascaris  lumbricoides.

4. outline the clinical significance of ascariasis.

5. describe the laboratory diagnosis of ascariasis.

6. sketch the life- cycle of human hookworms: Ancylostoma duodenale       and Necator americanus.

7. describe briefly the manifestations of hookworm disease.

8.  describe the laboratory diagnosis of hookworm infection.

9.   sketch the life- cycle of Strongyloides  stercorslis.

10. outline the clinical manifestations of strongyliodiasis.

11. explain why strongyliodiasis may become a persistent infection.

12. describe the laboratory diagnosis of strongyliodiasis.

13. sketch the life- cycle of Trichinella spiralis and explain how humans         are infected with this parasite.

14. describe the main manifestations of trichinosis.

15. describe the laboratory diagnosis of trichinosis.

16. sketch the life- cycle of Trichuris trichiura.

17. describe briefly the clinical manifestations of trichuriasis.

18. describe the laboratory diagnosis of trichuriasis.

19. sketch the life- cycle of Enterobius vermicularis.

20. recognize the cause of a persistent enterobiasis.

21. describe briefly the clinical significance of enterobiasis.

22. describe the laboratory diagnosis of enterobiasis.

23. list the pathogenic and nonpathogenic filariae present in Sudan and         Africa and give with each the name of its fly or mosquito vector.

24. sketch the life- cycle of Onchocerca volvulus.

25. sketch the geographical areas in Sudan where onchocerciasis is                  endemic.

26. outline the clinical features of onchocerciasis.

27. describe the laboratory diagnosis of onchocerciasis.

28. sketch the life- cycle of Wuchereria bancrofti.

29. outline the clinical manifestations of bancroftian filariasis.

30. describe the laboratory diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis

31. sketch the life-cycle of Loa Loa.

32. describe briefly the clinical manifestations of loiasis.

33. describe the laboratory diagnosis of loiasis.

34. sketch the life- cycle of Dracunculus medinensis.

35. describe briefly the clinical significance of dracontiasis.

36. describe the laboratory diagnosis of dracontiasis.

37. sketch the life- cycle of Taenia saginata and Hymenolepis nana.

38. describe the clinical significance of taeniasis.

39. describe the laboratory diagnosis of taeniasis.

40. sketch the life- cycle of Taenia solium.

41. explain how humans are infected with T. solium larval stage.

42. outline the clinical manifestations of cysticercosis.

43. describe the laboratory diagnosis of T. solium infection.

44. sketch the life- cycle of Echinococcus granulosus.

45. explain how humans are infected with the larval stage of E. granulosus.

46. describe the hydatid cyst and name its commonest sites in the                   infected human body.

47. name the immunodiagnostic tests that are usually used in diagnosis        of hydatid disease.

48. sketch the life- cycle of digenetic trematodes other than the                        schistosomes.

49. realize that digenetic trematodes other than the schistosomes may           cause disease of the liver, bile ducts and gallbladder or the intestine         or lungs.

50. outline the clinical manifestation of human infection with Fasciola            hepatica or F. gigantica.

51. describe the laboratory diagnosis of fascioliasis.

52. sketch the life- cycle of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni.     53. describe briefly the pathology and clinical manifestations of urinary         schistosomiasis.

54. describe the laboratory diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis.

55. outline the pathology and clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis         mansoni.

56. describe the laboratory diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni.

  

Practicals

57. identify adults and eggs of intestinal nematodes: Ascaris                            lumbricoides, the hookworms, Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius             vermicularis.

58. identify larvae of intestinal nematodes: rhabditiform larva of                     Strongyloides stercoralis and larva of Trichinella spiralis in                        muscle.

59. find eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, the hookworms and Trichuris               trichiura and larvae of Strongyloides  stercoralis in preserved faecal         specimens examined as non- concentrated and concentrated                      preparations, using for concentration centrifugal sedimentation and         floatation methods.

60. identify histological section of Onchocerca volvulus nodule.

61. identify microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, Loa loa and                         Mansonella  perstans .

62. search stained  blood smears for microfilariae and differentiate                  microfilariae of pathogenic W. bancrofti and L. loa from each other          and from those of non- pathogenic M. perstans.

63. identify rhabditiform larvae of Dracunculus medinensis.      

64. identify cyclops containing the infective larva of D. medinensis.          65. identify Taenia as whole tapeworm or strobila.

66. identify gravid segment of T. saginata and distinguish it from that of       T. solium.

67. identify Taenia egg and Hymenolepis egg.

68. search preserved faecal specimens for Hymenolepis and Taenia eggs.

69. identify adult Echinococcus granulosus, hydatid cyst and histological       section of cyst wall.

70. examine hydatid sand to find protoscolices and brood capsules.

71. use immunodiagnostic tests for diagnosis of hydatid disease.

72. identify adults and eggs of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica.

73. identify male and female schistosomes and their forkā€“tailed                       cercaria.

74. identify Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni eggs.

75. identify schistosome eggs in histopathological sections of infected            tissue.

76. examine preserved urine deposit for S. haematobium eggs and                  preserved faecal specimens for S. mansoni eggs.

77. find and identify eggs of various helminths (intestinal nematodes,            cestodes and schistosomes ) in preserved faecal specimens with                mixed infection.

 

Content:

Lectures

1. Helminths : nematodes, cestodes and trematodes.

2. Intestinal nematodes.

3. Ascariasis.

4. Hookworms.

5. Strongyloidiasis.

6. Trichinosis.

7. Trichuriasis. 

8. Enterobiasis.

9. The filariae.

10. Onchocerciasis.

11. Bancroftian filariasis.

12. Loiasis.

13. Dracontiasis.

14. The cestodes.

15. Hydatid disease.

16. Digenetic trematodes.

17. Fascioliasis.

18. Schistosomiasis.

Practicals

19. Intestinal nematodes.

20. Onchocerciasis, bancroftian filariasis, loiasis and dracontiasis.

21. Taenia and Hymenolepis.

22. Hydatid disease.

23. Fascioliasis and schistosomiasis .

24. Intestinal helminths.