Course Description:
This course is a study of protozoal diseases and their laboratory diagnosis with practice in performing the diagnosis.

Lectures:

  1. outline the major characteristics of classes of medical protozoa.
  2.  list the diseases caused by medical protozoa.
  3. describe the life cycle of pathogenic intestinal and genital protozoa.
  4. Outline the pathology and clinical features of amoebiasis, giardiasis, and trichomoniasis.
  5. Describe the laboratory diagnosis of amoebiasis, giardiasis, and trichomoniasis.
  6. List the clinical types of leishmaniasis and name the parasites that cause them.
  7. Sketch the life-cycle and morphology of Leishmania.
  8. Outline the pathology and clinical features of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis.
  9. Describe the laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis.
  10. Outline the pathology and clinical features of visceral leishmaniasis.
  11. Describe the laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.  
  12. Sketch the life-cycle of parasites of African human trypanosomiasis.  
  13. Outline the clinical features of gambiense and rhodesiense trypanosomiasis and their geographical distribution.     
  14. Describe the laboratory diagnosis of gambiense and rhodesiense trypanosomiasis.  
  15. Sketch the life-cycle of Toxoplasma gondii.
  16. explain how humans are infected with T. gondii .
  17. outline the clinical features of toxoplasmosis.
  18. describe the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.
  19. list the species of malaria parasite.
  20. describe the life-cycle of the malaria parasite and the differences between species life-cycles.
  21. outline the pathological and clinical manifestations of malaria and relate them to parasite life-cycle.
  22. describe briefly the parasitological causes and clinical manifestations of life-threatening falciparum malaria.
  23. describe the differences in blood form morphology between species of malaria parasite.
  24. describe the laboratory diagnosis of malaria.
Practicals 
  1. .identify pathogenic intestinal and genital protozoa.
  2. distinguish pathogenic from non-pathogenic intestinal protozoa in trophozoite and cyst forms.  
  3. detect and identify cysts of Entamoeba historical, E. coli and Giardia lamblia in preserved fecal specimens, examined as non- concentrated and concentrated preparations, using for concentration flotation and centrifugal sedimentation methods. 
  4. identify the insect and mammalian morphological forms of Leishmania.
  5. find amastigotes of Leishmania in skin lesion and bone marrow stained smears.
  6. stain tissue smears and search for amastigotes of                           Leishmania
  7. identify African trypanosomes in stained blood smears.               
  8. identify tachyzoites and encysted bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii in stained preparations.  
  9. demonstrate how toxoplasmosis can be serodiagnoses using ELISA.
  10. identify all stages in the life-cycle of the malaria parasite. 
  11. identify the blood forms of each of the four species of malaria parasite.    
  12. detect malaria parasites in stained thick blood smears and identify species in the thin smears.  
  13. prepare and stain thick and thin blood smears using Field,
  14. Leishman and Giemsa stains and search for malaria parasites and identify species.   
  15. examine blood for malaria antigenemia using appropriate diagnostic test.  
  16. perform parasite count to estimate Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia.

Content:

Lectures
1. Protozoa: classification and medical importance.  
2. Amoebiasis, giardiasis and trichomoniasis.
3. Leishmaniasis: cutaneous, visceral and mucosal leishmaniasis.    
4. Trypanosomiasis.
5. Toxoplasmosis.  
6. Malaria: species of parasite, life-cycle and differences                   between species.  
7. Malaria: pathology and clinical manifestations .
8. Malaria: laboratory diagnosis.
Practicals
9. Identification of intestinal and genital protozoa.
10. Laboratory diagnosis of pathogenic intestinal protozoa.
11. Leishmania.
12. Laboratory diagnosis of leishmaniasis.
13. African trypanosomes.
14. Toxoplasma gondii.
15. Immunodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.
                              16. Life-cycle of malaria parasite.
17. Blood forms of the four species of malaria parasite.          
18. Microscopic diagnosis of malaria.
19. Malaria antigenaemia test.
20. Malaria parasite count.